Fuel economy & CO2 emissions are detailed for the US, EU, Japan, South Korea & China. Vehicle safety & cost implications are also considered along with weight reduction by sector (body structure, chassis, powertrain and interior). The report also includes a detailed section on materials technology and examines the use of advanced steel, aluminium, magnesium, titanium, carbon fibre, plastics, bio-materials and textiles. Recycling and joining technology are also considered. Introduction The effect of policy initiatives Weight saving methods Competition between OEMs Mass reduction and vehicle lifecycle CO2 emissions Barriers to weight reduction DifferentiationSafety Process development Cost considerations The drivers for lightweighting Fuel economy and CO2 emissions The European Union Lightweighting as part of the solution Lifecycle analysis the holistic approach Historic perspective Interiors Materials technology Developing material technology Advanced steel developments Competition from other materials The Future Steel Vehicle Programme Steel forming technology Aluminium Changing aluminium properties using carbon http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/garcinia-cambogia-extract—crucial-data-released-231403591.html nanotubes Recycling Magnesium Price volatility Demand for magnesium Magnesium advantages Magnesium extractionAlloy and process development Magnesium sheet production and stamping Forging Titanium Lowering the cost of titanium Extraction Fabrication Composite and plastic materials Carbon fibre Strategic interest from OEMs Supply-side constraints Carbon fibre cost reduction Process development Thermocomposite materials Thermoset garcinia cambogia extract versus thermoplastic Plastics Sheet moulding compound (SMC) Nano-scale materials Honeycomb structuresProcess development Hybrid materials technology Challenges in bio-material application Bio-based materials Current and future applications Future application Textiles Figure 1: Potential further gains in vehicle efficiency Figure 2: Segment average kerb weights 1990 – 2012 (Europe) Figure 3: US light duty vehicle trends for weight, acceleration, fuel economy, and weight-adjusted fuel economy for model years 1975-2009 (US EPA, 2009 data) Figure 4: Weight reduction in the current weight-based CO2 target system (left) and in a size based system (right) Figure 5: Average CO2 emissions levels for new passenger cars in the EU Figure 6: CO2 emissions for model year 2008 hybrids and their non-hybrid counterparts Figure 7: The cost of fuel efficiency gains through weight reduction compared to other technologies Figure 8: Fiat’s C-Evo Platform Figure 9: North American curb weight forecast Figure 10: The use phase dominates lifecycle vehicle emissions Figure 11: Analysing lifetime greenhouse gas effects Figure 12: Relative CO2 reduction benefits vs.
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Weight Reduction Decreases Atrial Fibrillation, Symptom Severity
Whether weight reduction and cardiometabolic risk factor management can reduce the burden of atrial fibrillation has not been known. The study was conducted between June 2010 and December 2011 among overweight and obese patients with symptomatic atrial fibrillation. Patients underwent a median (midpoint) of 15 months of follow-up. Patients were randomized to weight management (intervention; n = 75) or general lifestyle advice (control; n = 75).
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